An Analysis of the Individual Effects of Sex Bias. Smith, Richard M. Most attempts to correct for the presence of biased test items in a measurement instrument have been either to remove the items or to adjust the scores to correct for the bias.
Selection bias is the bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed. It is .
Individual-level variables include maternal race (as reported on the birth record), sex, comorbid diagnosis of mental retardation (from the CDER), maternal age in years, the maximum years of maternal or paternal education, maternal birthplace (within or outside the USA), poverty status (delivery paid for by Medi-Cal) and birth order (firstborn.
The opposite of this bias occurs when participants only select intermediate or mild responses as answers. Question order bias. Question order bias, or "order effects bias", is a type of response bias where a respondent may react differently to questions based on the .